The aim of this course is to demonstrate how advanced signal processing techniques contribute to study brain function using modern medical imaging modalities; an emerging field also termed computational neuroimaging. Over the past decade, seeing the brain at work has had a tremendous impact on neurosciences and medicine. The essentials of signal and image processing methods that lead to successful interpretation of functional brain imaging data are described, with a particular emphasis on multivariate and exploratory techniques. The proposed methodologies are widely applicable; particular examples include functional brain imaging using fMRI (mostly), but also EEG, and optical modalities.